Solute and Solvent
Solids, Liquids, and Gases  which are labeled solute are dissolved in liquids referred to as solvents. 

*Under condition solvent is a liquid the difference between solute and solvent is not clear.

Concentrated Solutions: High solute per (insert unit) volume

example: Protein Shakes

Dilute Solution: Low solute per (insert unit) volume

*Trace amounts refers to extremely low concentration

Saturated Solution: When not more solute can be dissolved in a solvent

Miscible Liquids can be mixed to make a solution

*Ex. Water and Ethyl Alcohol

Immiscible Liquids cannot be mixed (for the most part) to make a solution

*Ex. Oil and Water (Oil Spills)


Molarity is the concentration of a solution, typically expressed as the number of moles per liter of solution (M).

Boiling Point Elevation

Increase in solute raises boiling point of solvent

Predicting Solubility

In Progress

Study Guide

Acids And Bases

  • Arrhenius definition: Acids are substances that dissociate (separate into ions) in water to give H+ ions. Bases are substances that dissociates in water to form hydroxide (OH–) ions.
  • Bronsted-Lowry definition:  Acids are proton (H+) donors and bases are proton acceptors.
  • Organic acids: Acids that contain the carboxylic acid group.
  • Monoprotic: Acids that contain one Hydrogen.
  • Diprotic: Acids that contain two Hydrogen.
  • Polyprotic acids:  Acids that contain more than one Hydrogen.

pH: A measure of Hydrogen concentration, determining the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

            Neutral: pH of 7

            Acidic: pH of less than 7

            Basic: pH of greater than 7

Strength of acids and bases: 

  1. Strong Acids: Acids that are strong electrolytes, completely ionizing in solution.
    1. HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO3, HClO4
  2. Strong Bases: Acids that are strong electrolytes, completely ionizing in solution.
    1. Alkali metal hydroxides (group 1), Ca(OH)2,  Sr(OH)2, and Ba(OH)2
  3. Weak Acids/Bases: All weak acids/bases partially ionize in water

Neutralization Reactions:

  1. Acid +  Base  →  Salt (ionic compound)+ Water

Bronsted-Lowry Reactions

  1. HA  +  B    ⇒       A-   +  HB+

Acid + Base   conjugate base  +  conjugate acid

Naming Acids:

  1. Anion ending in ide ⇒ hydro___ic
    1. HCl  (hydrogen chloride) ⇒  hydrochloric acid
  2. Anion ending in ite ⇒ ___ous
    1. HNO2 (hydrogen nitrite) ⇒  nitrous acid
  3. Anion ending in ate ⇒ ___ic
    1. H3SO4 (hydrogen sulfate) ⇒ sulfuric acid